Monday, April 25, 2011

Kinesics (Body Movement)

Buku 'Communicating Effectively' tulisan Saundra Hybels merakamkan tentang kinetik iaitu pergerakan tubuh. Dalam penulisan beliau, istilah 'Kinesics' dan 'Body Movement' telah digunakan. Penulisan beliau dapat dirujuk dalam muka surat 139-141.


Body Movement also called kinesics, is responsible for a lot of nonverbal communication. P. Ekman and W.V. Friesen, researchers on nonverbal communication, divide body movement into five categories:
emblems, illustrators, regulators, displays of feelings, and adaptors.

E: Emblems
I: Illustrators
R: Regulators
D: Displays of feelings
A: Adaptors  

Emblems are body movements that directly translate into words. The extended thumb of a hitchiker is an emblem that means "I want a ride." A circle made with the thumb and index finger can be translated into "OK." These emblems are known by most of the people in your society, and they are used to send a specific message. Emblems often cannot be carried from one culture to another. Shaking your head back and forth in southern India, for example, means "yes."

Emblems are often used when words are inappropriate. It would be impractical for a hitchhiker to stand on the side of the road and shout, "Please give me a ride!" Sometimes emblems can replace talk. You might cover your face with your hands if you are embarrassed, and you hold your fingers to show how many of something you want. Subgroups in a society often use emblems that members of the group understand by whose meanings are intentionally kept from outsiders - the secret handshake of a fraternity is an example.

Illustrators

Regulators control the back-and-forth flow of speaking and listening. They are made of hand gestures, shifts in posture, and other body movements that signal the beginning and end of interactions. At a very simple level, a teacher uses a regulator when he points to the person he wants to speak next. On a more subtle level, someone might turn away slightly when you are talking, perhaps indicating "I don't like what I'm hearing" or "I don't want to continue this conversation."

Displays of feelings show, through facial expressions and body movements, how intensely a person is feeling. If you walk into a professor's office and the professor says, "I can see you are really feeling upset," he or she is responding to nonverbal cues you are giving about your feelings. You could also come in with a body posture indicating "I'm really going to argue about this grade"- with your clenched hands or stiff body position showing that you ready for a confrontation.

Adaptors are nonverbal ways of adjusting to a communication situation. Because people use such a wide variety of adaptors, and because they are so specific to each person's own needs and the individual communication situation, they are difficult to classify or even to describe generally. People often use adaptors when they are nervous or uncomfortable in a situation. You might play with jewelry, drum on the table, or move around a lot in your seat. Each of these behaviours is an adaptor - a way of helping you cope with the situation. We all use adaptors, but we are generally not aware of them unless someone points them out.

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